Puntland Livestock Value Chain Sub-Activity



PROJECT NAME 🙁 Puntland Livestock Value Chain Sub-Activity)

REPORT TYPE 🙁 Baseline Survey Report)








4.2.1. Field Data Collection. 5

4.2.2. Participatory Methodologies: 6


5.1.1. Village Committees’ Role in Animal Healthcare. 7

5.1.2. CAHWs Selection Process. 7

5.1.3. Suggested Locations For The Vet.Pharmecies: 10

5.1.4. Surveillance / Key Informants. 10

5.1.5. Assessment of Expected Results. 10

5.1.6. The Situation on the Ground. 13

5.1.7. Baseline Findings for Rangeland Situation. 14

5.1.8. Scale of Grassland Degradation and Proposed Rehab Options. 15

5.3. Selection criteria for the sites to be rehabilitated. 16

5.3.2. Site-Based Contour Bund Construction for Restoration and Conservation. 17

5.3.3 Assumptions: 17

5.3.4. Monitoring and Evaluation. 18

5.3.5. Impact Indicators Are As Described In The Following Indicator Procedures. 18

5.3.6. Risks and Constraints. 21






USAID—————————–United States of Agency International for Development

DAI——————————–Development Alternative Inc

MOLAH—————————Ministry Of Livestock and Animal Husbandry

PRA——————————–Participatory Rural Appraisal

CAHWS—————————Community Animal Health Workers

PA———————————-Pastoral Association

VDC——————————-Village Development Committee

NR———————————Natural Resource

NRM—————————–Natural Resource Management

DMP—————————–Desert Margins Program

KAD—————————–Kaalo Aid and Development Organization



The USAID-funded Partnership for Economic Growth (Partnership) program is being implemented by Development Alternatives, Inc. (DAI) and CNFA. The purpose of the Partnership program is to help local authorities and private sector groups improve the enabling environment for investment, generate more productive employment and improve other livelihood activities. Using a flexible approach that relies on detailed analysis before launching each sub-activity, the Partnership program has two focus areas: overall private sector development and strengthening specific productive value chains, including livestock and agriculture.

KAALO – The project implementing partner-has commissioned a team of two persons with participation of additional two experts (one from MOLAH and another from Ministry of Environment) to undertake the baseline survey ascertaining the relevance of the proposed components/activities against the felt-needs of communities in the target region of Puntland. In addition, the survey intends to identify constraints and opportunities on the ground based on the analyses of the context of target communities’ existing problems against the objectives and strategies of the project.


The livestock value chain in Puntland is exceptionally significant for the livelihoods of the entire population. Despite its potentials, the predominantly pastoral livestock sector is affected by serious constraints including animal health problems, declining feed resources resulting from extensive degradation of the rangelands, low productivity worsened by recurrent severe droughts, poor marketability of products, and poor organization of actors along the livestock value chain. Many of these constraints derive from severe capacity limitations as well as poor policy and institutional frameworks that govern the livestock value chain. Following a Partnership assessment and formulation mission to Puntland in June 2012, animal health and natural resource management were identified as priority areas by the Ministry of Livestock for intervention under the Puntland component of the program. The project target area represents significant portions of Northern Mudug, Nugaal and Eastern Sanaag.


The study is to assess the situation on the ground at the project’s three target regions (Northern Mudug, Nugaal and EesternSanaag). This baseline survey is an integral part of the inception process of the project and has the following specific objectives:

  • To establish benchmark data on and provide insight to the project locations with special emphasis on the existing livestock health delivery systems and rangeland resource and institutional conditions.
  • To assess the relevance and achievability of areas of priority concern as stated in the proposal document against the prevailing physical, economic and societal conditions in target areas.
  • To design and develop project implementation plan based on the study’s findings and a project monitoring and evaluation plan to be used to assess impact made by project interventions.


As stipulated by the project implementation design, it has been found essential for KAALO, the project’s implementing agency, to develop a thorough understanding of the local context and target community. In order to achieve this task, the following tools and methodology were used:

4.2.1. Field Data Collection

To accomplish this task, KAALO employed a consultant, project coordinator who were supported by two senior representatives from MOLAH and Ministry of Environment to conduct field data collection from 16th-Dec to 31st Dec 2012.

In the field trip, 6 key selected sites were visited from each of the project target regions.

The sites, Totalling 18, were decisively chosen with the local people among other important locations.

Structured questionnaires and checklists were used in interviews and semi-structured group discussions with local communities to collect quantitative and qualitative information/data on specific issues such as livestock health care, Community Animal Health Workers (CAHWs), natural resource management and related environmental issues including types of resources, accessibility, management and land degradation

A livelihood analysis approach was utilised in the collection of quantitative data aimed at identifying the existing economic variances within target pastoralist communities and changes to the wealth group spectrum following the recent drought and scale of destitutions. Wealth ranking, pair wise scoring were the main tool used here.

Key informants—including knowledgeable individuals in the area such as; veterinarians, officials from Puntland’s department of range, ecologists and business people—were interviewed in the collection of pertinent quantitative and qualitative data.

4.2.2. Participatory Methodologies:

Some Participatory Rural Appraisal (PRA) tools were used in information collection and analysis on other pastoral livelihood determinants such as market situation, migration pattern, and seasonality and security conditions, which were intended to maintain the survey process holistically. As much as possible, the presence of all members of the community was ensured, with important consideration given to the adequate representation of women groups in these proceedings.


Result 1: Selection and training of Community Based Animal Health Workers (CAHWs)

Livestock health is one of the biggest concerns facing pastoralists regarding their livelihood security. Depending on the specific location, the struggle to keep their livestock healthy costs pastoralists a bulk of their income. The economically precarious situation in which they are found makes matters severely worse. More than two decades absence of a functioning central government resulted in the collapse of government-sponsored veterinary services. Veterinary services have consequently fallen into the hands of the private sector. For the most part, pharmaceutical companies based in a few major towns, like Bosaso and hargeisa, import veterinary drugs that are distributed to the various regions by nonprofessional channels and/or individual drugs retailers and vendors. The services as well as the drugs are on many occasions unaffordable to pastoralists, especially during times of economic hardship. Moreover, this prompted pastoralists to purchase veterinary drugs themselves, giving way to the rise of petty trading of mainly expired and ineffective drugs in which pastoralists themselves were directly treating their animals.  As a result, rampant drug misuse in the concerned area has resulted in considerable number of reported deaths of animals. During drought periods, pastoralists have to prioritize their most immediate needs such as water, animal transport and household food consumption. This prioritization curtails animal health to the bottom of the list, therefore, depending on the situation, contributes considerably to the loss of livestock assets.

Since the collapse of central government of Somalia, decentralization of the animal health sector has been of major interest and strategy for the development communities, aimed at filling the void left by government-sponsored services. This was seen as the most appropriate option for several reasons. Primarily, this is the best approach through which many pastoral communities living in the remotest parts of the country can be reached with service. This was also justified with the supporting conclusion that most pastoralists are willing to keep their animals healthy at relatively higher costs. Moreover, the availability of trained semi-professionals would reduce incidences of drug misuse among target communities and would promote the decline of UN-authorized vet-products.

However, several issues surfaced since the time the practice was introduced in this region. Both the lack of coordination of the training undertaken by the different stakeholders and the lack of linkages between the trained CAHWs and private veterinarians undermined the sustainability of the approach. The baseline survey reveals that many of the trainees are willing to provide veterinary services to pastoralists amidst the complex social and economic challenges.  An average distance for a CAHW to deliver services is designed to be 20km in the target districts.  While it is anticipated some of the herders will continue to depend on freelance untrained drug

distributors and drug shops, other communities have limited access to any sort of vet related services. As a result, veterinary drug-abuse continues to exist, putting the safety of livestock products to consumers at stake.

5.1.1. Village Committees’ Role in Animal Healthcare

  1. Promoting Livestock health care including the monitoring and management of CAHWs in their operations.
  2. The facilitation of the establishment of a collaborative system of distribution between CAHWs, major veterinary drug suppliers and veterinary associations in their respective regions.
  3. Herder extension and the monitoring of accessibility and affordability of livestock health services in their respective regions.
  4. Diversification of income sources, commodities and practices.


5.1.2. CAHWs Selection Process

Evidence from previous attempts undertaken by a number of various agencies/bodies for the last decades; as corroborated by findings in this survey, suggested that much emphasis should be placed on participatory approach in the implementation of this component. The selection and placement should closely involve the existing village based institution i.e. Village Development Committee (VDC), Pastoral Associations (PA’s) etc, who during later stages of the project will absorb the component into their respective livestock units. For the most part, the project should exploit the PAs’ close contact with and relatively more permanent presence in the target communities.

The village authorities are responsible for the facilitation of the selection process, which should draw upon a list of criteria mutually agreed upon between the community and Survey team for the eligibility of prospective trainees. However, the final decision of who to select

must remain with the community. As experience shows, major requirements on this list should include: trustworthiness, availability, livestock ownership, skills and gender. There is strong interrelation between this list of attributes and the rate of dropout among previously trained CAHWs; whereby such qualities were not considered. Another major item on the list, which is expected to discourage such high dropout rate, is the requirement of guarantor who will give assurance that the selected CAHWs will not misappropriated materials received under this program


Table 1:selected villages for CAWHS and number of trainees given to each village

1 Mudug Galdogob Bursaalax 2
2 Mudug Galkayo Bayra 2
3 Mudug Galkayo Cagaaran 3
4 Mudug Xarfo Heema 2
5 Mudug Xarfo Ceel Gerdi 2
6 Mudug Xarfo Xarfo 2
7 Nugaal Garowe Awrculus 2
8 Nugaal Garowe Reebanti 2
9 Nugaal Garowe Mayle 3
10 Nugaal Eyl Laqlaajisle 2
11 Nugaal Godobjiraan Wargaduud 2
12 Nugaal Garowe Yoonbeys 3
13 Sanaag Dhahar Dhahar 2
14 Sanaag Dhahar Xingalool 2
15 Sanaag Badhan Ceel Buh 3
16 Sanaag Badhan Badhan 2
17 Sanaag Badhan Rad& Laako 2
18 Sanaag Badhan Mindigale 2


Table 2: list of selected CAHW members and villages they representatives



1 Cabdinuur Jamac Xirsi Male Mudug Xarfo 729695
2 Shafici Sacdi Axmed Male Mudug Xarfo 788814
3 Cabdi Maxamed Cigaal Male Mudug Cagaaran 901138
4 Cawil Maxamed Aadan Male Mudug Cagaaran 941806
5 Bashiir Maxamed Guuleed Male Mudug Bursaalax 786176
6 Cabdirisaaq Maxamed Cabdi Male Mudug Bursaalax 768060
7 Siciid C/Qafara Cabdiraxman Male Mudug Bayra 744988
8 Maryan Maxamed Xusen Female Mudug Bayra 653965
9 Cabdikariin cumar warsame Male Mudug Ceelgardi 526252
10 Cabdiqadir xasan C/raxman Male Mudug Ceelgardi 707548
11 Cabdikariin cali  Aadan Male Mudug Ceelgardi 344697
12 Maxamuud c/salaan cabdule Male Mudug Heema 679299
13 Cabdi cabdulaahi Aadan Male Mudug Heema 708770


14 Cabdikhayr Yusuf Axmed Male Nugaal Mayle 717303
15 Daahiro Faarax Xaashi Female Nugaal Mayle 749609
16 Safiyo Siciid dubasare Female Nugaal Mayle 663168
17 Liibaan Cabdi Cali Male Nugaal Yoonbeys 705051
18 Yuusuf Faarax Nuur Male Nugaal Yoonbeys 690020
19 Maxamed cali surleex Male Nugaal Yoonbeys 774331
20 Axmed Maxamed Cilmi Male Nugaal Wargadud 643455
21 Abshir Maxamed Jamac Male Nugaal Wargadud 688405
22 Cabdinasir Cabdiraxman Cali Male Nugaal Awrculus 279546
23 Maxamed Cabdi Maxamed Male Nugaal Awrculus 668545
24 Axmed maxamuud maxamed Male Nugaal Reebanti 286973
25 Barre maxamed Siciid Male Nugaal Reebanti 986040
26 Bashiir Nuur Faarax Male Nugaal Laqlaajisle 672413
27 Xaawo diiriye Female Nugaal xamxamaa 705051


28 Deeqo Cabdiraxman Cabdi Female Sanaag Ceel buh 731542
29 Axmed Maxamed Maxamuud Male Sanaag Ceel buh 719636
30 Axmed Maxamuud Maxamed Male Sanaag Rad 705879
31 Cali maxamuud Faarax Male Sanaag Rad 764887
32 Axmed Faarax Xasan Male Sanaag Xingalool 658054
33 Maxamed Yasiin  Axmed Male Sanaag Xingalool 668264
34 Bile warsame saalax Male Sanaag Baran 709512
35 Maxamed cumar axmed Male Sanaag Baran 701706
36 Maxamed Maxamuud Cumar Male Sanaag Dhahar 791041
37 Safiyo Maxamuud Faarax Female Sanaag Dhahar 618035
38 Maxamed Cabdi maxamed Male Sanaag Dhahar 024951889
39 Cabdiraxman Cali Faarax Male Sanaag Mindigale 684449
40 Xirsi Siciid cali Male Sanaag Mindigale 620137

5.1.3. Suggested Locations For The Vet.Pharmecies:

After consultation with the village community’s elders and considering the requirement for expanding veterinary services in the visited areas, the team has selected the below mentioned three villages:

  1. Bayra of Mudug Region
  2. Awrculus of Nugaal Region
  3. Badhan of Sanaag region

5.1.4. Surveillance / Key Informants

When established, network of CAHWs in the target project area will act as key informants for various disease early warning and early reactions Endeavour. The Baseline substantiates that, if coordinated well, the CAHWs can be strong contributors to this process of improving information and knowledge on the prevailing conditions of water and pasture and their spatial and seasonal distribution in the target area. In addition, it is anticipated that after receiving training on appropriate data collection methods and reporting, the CAHWs can also have a positive impact on disease surveillance across the region. Survey findings also suggest that the experience and connection of existing private veterinary associations in the area should be drawn into this process. Experience and connection of existing private veterinary associations in the area should be drawn into this process.

5.1.5. Assessment of Expected Results

Expected result: Improved livestock productivity through established community-based animal health services
Indicator 1: 40 CAHWs selected, trained and established in the vet service deficient target villages
Indicator 2: successful CAHWs are supported with more Training and consoling inputs


Survey findings strengthen the notion that decentralization is key to the improvement of livestock health in the target area in the present context of weak governmental mechanisms. There is strong evidence that through privatization, a much wider spectrum of remote populations could be reached without necessarily opposing the strategies of the Puntland government of the sector. The trained CAHWs can play particularly useful and cost-effective role in regards to disease surveillance, information dissemination and vaccination campaigns.

However, in order to strengthen their veterinary service delivery function, it is very essential that linkages be developed between the CAHWs and existing veterinary associations and private practitioners in the area. The multi-layered effect of this linkage is that the work undertaken by CAHWs is legitimized, managed well and integrated into qualified veterinary systems existing in the area.

In order to ensure the sustainability of this component, a strong monitoring system should be set in place, which is well understood by all of those involved. The system should place important emphasis on record keeping by the CAHWs to monitor drug-turnover, efficiency of the drug replenishment system and overall impact.

The monitoring system should work on three levels; the CAHWs, the community and the project. The CAHWs should be encouraged to own this process, so that they are able to assess the cost-recovery of their operations and personal advantages. The community should monitor the work undertaken both through physical observation and through records kept by the CAHWs in order to measure benefits gained. KAALO and its partners should continually assess the impact of this component in terms of livestock productivity, off-take and level of reduced disease incidence. The level of contribution of this component to the resilience of target communities to the ever-changing environmental circumstances must also be assessed.

Result 2: natural regeneration improved and the capacity of pastoral communities for demand-driven natural resource management and governance is built

At an unprecedented rate, the rangeland resources of the target regions —as well as those of the rest of the country—have been undergoing severe degradation. This process will be a key trigger in the eventual collapse of livelihoods in this area unless appropriately addressed. While some of the causes include natural phenomena; in the context of key potential grassland particularly, the problem of diminished rangeland productivity is majorly caused by anthropogenic (man-made) activities.

The anthropogenic activities are related to the considerable loss of most of the rangelands’ tree cover to human needs such as; fencing and charcoal—both as a  source of alternative income for rural populations and energy for the rapidly increasing urban communities. This is further worsened by the loss of vegetation cover through overgrazing.

The survey revealed that while neither local communities nor the authorities were fully engaged in natural resource management and protection, recently the momentum of certain Village Development Committees (VDC) and communities gained skills and the capacity to identify and address pressing present problems of mainly rangeland degradation. It is to be noted that these VDC achieved a number of obligations – reduced charcoal burning in Sool plateau, reactivation of key grazing reserves, among others activities where communities organize themselves to carry out Natural Resource Management initiatives. These informal community-based initiatives have so far evolved into the following obligations:

  1. Formulation of new customary law: protect the remaining natural resource base from manmade damages through such schemes as total ban of charcoal burning, tree/grass cutting and rangeland fencing for private enclosures.
  2. Physical reinforcement: community mobilization to restrain collectively rangeland abuse and creation new settlement around the prime grazing areas.
  3. Information sharing: disseminate information and community awareness regarding these initiatives as well as general issues related to Natural Resources Management (NRM).

While it is still too early to convey the impact such community initiative have had so far, the solidarity shown by these communities was enough to inspire other adjacent communities to exercise similar practices. Moreover, findings in the baseline study indicate that the emergence of such community-initiated NRM activities are expected to spread to other parts of the country.

Overall, these events have very positive implications for the future achievability of the DAI project expected results as well as the sustainability of resources and facilities to be established by the project.      

Natural Resources Management has to be conceived and defined within the context of pastoral development, which demands the development of strong rapport with the other units of Livestock and Social Services. Interventions in any of these areas of importance involve a great deal of activities that are unfamiliar and unknown to the local pastoral population. On the other end, their participation is crucial and detrimental to the success or failure of pastoral projects and programs. Their consent, approval and co-operation represent an element of strength in not only the project’s initiatives, but also the sustainability of project-established Pastoral Institutions. Therefore, continued awareness rising of target pastoral populations is strongly recommended to be developed as a strategy to compliment the already adopted and developed strategy of village based institution building.

The awareness rising of target populations is to be formulated, so as to make it deal with ways and means of seeking their influence, willingness and power of co-operation. At the level of Pastoral Association or VDC in later stages, this function is to be undertaken by the Social Service Unit. However, it needs to be designed at a higher administrative and authoritative level so as to keep it in line with the mission and vision of the respective Pastoral represented institutions; thus, strong collaboration from the other units would highly be recommended.

As to the intervention regarding the ecological systems, it is suggested that projects and programs be designed in association with other purposes or projects and not in isolation because ecological balance cannot be an end in itself without considerations for social and economic impact. A match is to be drawn between stockholders, livestock and the available resources. Management of resources cannot be without the stockholders and their livestock.  Within that situation, a compound strategy is suggested here so as to account all vectors and treat all problems in a network and in a single occasion. Moreover, this is to approach the subject of pastoral development in sequential and coherent steps.

5.1.6. The Situation on the Ground

The primary use of the project target rang elands is for animal production. The productivity of the animal population is low and inefficient. A significant cause is the low and deteriorating productivity of the rang elands.  It should become a high local community priority to preserve and improve this resource and, through this action, increase the efficiency and output of livestock production.

A great need is for the training of people at all levels to accomplish this objective. A high need is for competent local institutions, in consort with local elders and pastoralists to develop and employ practice to improve the management and use of rangeland vegetation and to effect animal management procedures to control grazing and increase per animal unit productivity. The grazing has deteriorated over time, and has remarkably worsened in recent years. As a result, the contribution of animal foods to the national supplies is not keeping pace with population needs.

Most of the grazing lands have reduced potentiality in vegetative production due primarily to adverse environments including low and seasonal rainfall; soil erosion; a lack of, or inadequate forage and grazing management; and overstocking rates in terms of what the available vegetative cover can provide for reasonable animal sustenance and production. Much of the rangeland is utilized by nomadic family groups who move their herds and flocks over extensive areas during the course of the year to find water and grazing for their livelihood.

Among the interrelated processes that have led to such a devastating situation is the pastoralists’ DE-stabilisation of their own seasonal or annual mobility of livestock in search of pasture. Although most rang eland is suitable for opportunistic grazing, most of the population living there have adopted longer-term and unsustainable grazing practices.

In the prevailing scarcity of water and pasture, this is also made worse by the large herd-size inclination of most of the population disregarding its environmental implications; such are the most influential factors affecting the loss of vegetation cover. Equally important, the loss of vegetation cover causes the reduction of the ability of soil to absorb and retain rainwater, thereby limiting the replenishment of the water table and decreasing pasture growth. Consequently, the livelihoods of target pastoral communities are under increasing threat from soil erosion, particularly since the initiations of community-based efforts to combat this problem have been non-existent until very recently.

As such, improving or stabilizing the situation will not be an easy task. The process must be an integrated one in which pastoralists are trained to own the application of the methods and are enabled to tackle the fundamental causes of their resource degradation. This component of the project covers a broad range of issues and works on the collective advantages of the different activities that are designed and should be implemented on three simultaneous aspects:

  • Addressing land degradation through rehabilitative measures such as soil and water conservation, and rainwater harvesting.
  • Building the capacity of local populations through participation
  • Natural Resources Management , Conservation and development by local community in collaboration with the key stakeholders

5.1.7. Baseline Findings for Rang eland Situation

In some of the visited areas, Deyr rains this year were relatively good and widespread covering larger portion of grassland. This has contributed to the regeneration of adequate pasture and replenishment of water sources that allowed various livestock species start gaining weight and health conditions.  Some of the visited area like Sanaag and some parts of nugaal valley have less rain and the livestock of those areas immigrated to the other regions.

The baseline findings confirm that the livelihood of the poor families comes from a diverse range of activities, including pastoral and non-farm activities.  The mainstream perception about community-based NRM can aptly be described as encouraging, while the role and responsibility of the selected local committees were appreciated by wider communities. The Baseline findings also verify that, at this point, the Cash-for-Work approach is the most appropriate strategy to improve household income among target populations—through temporary employment generation—while affecting important rehabilitative impact to the rangeland. It is also envisaged that such highly participative approach will facilitate the community’s sense of ownership of rangeland resources as well as the community’s future undertaking of similar natural resource management and rehabilitation initiatives.

This activity focuses on three key areas:

  1. A.                 improving land and natural resource conditions through implemented measures (sand/stone contour bunds, and re-seeding of plains;
  2. B.                  enhancing the understanding of target populations of the processes that lead to land and environmental degradation;
  3. C.                 Building the capacity of target pastoral communities, particularly the pastoral association or village development committees to sustain the implementation of such activities in the future. These will be achieved through training, hands-on collaborative effort during planning and implementation stages of the activity and through the participatory monitoring and evaluation of its impact, which all should contribute to the establishment of a favorable setting for the project’s stated aim.

5.1.8. Scale of Grassland Degradation and Proposed Rehab Options


Under the various customary laws practiced in key pastoral areas, rangeland is the communal and collective property of the Somali pastoral communities. However, in recent decades, there has been a growing tendency in which clans confine their use of rangeland held as their traditional ownership. In the grasslands of Hawd/Sool;-ecological zones- the most visible natural resource problems are primarily human-induced. In contrast, most of the lowlands of Nugaal valley, the environmental degradations in action are caused mainly by natural processes including wind and water erosion, gully formation, sand-dune encroachment. These types of erosions are commonly seen at the highly important grazing alluvial depressions between the mountain ranges. Many gully affected sites have reached irreversible stages for which the cost of restoring is beyond the project’s scope

The low-level or complete lack of rainfall, is also greatly contributing to the problem of rangeland resource degradation. Despite pastoralists’ widespread recognition of the negative environmental trends and changes, there are comparatively infantile local initiatives and structures operating for the benefit of a viable and effective use of natural resources.  In recent times, Somali pastoralists have gained the reputation of being opportunists and individualistic as shown by their disregard to environmental and rangeland situation. Baseline findings, however, indicate that for the first time in a long time there is a growing momentum of recognition among the communities in the target area that their livelihoods and economic wellbeing are predominantly dependent on the rational management of their natural resources and environment. These grass-root developments are expected to provide a lasting solution for the environmental catastrophe, reduce the irrational exploitation of the forest resources, address seasonal fluctuation natural fodder and facilitate the mending of community felt-needs and the approach and methodologies of this project.

5.2. Suggested Active Gully Stabilizations For Two Of The Three Regions.


As required by the project’s document, four gully-damaged flood Plains were identified for rehabilitation. Two of these are located in Nugaal Region while the other two are in Eastern Sanaag .names of the flood plains; their exact locations and the type of rehabilitations needed are shown in table three in page 15

5.3. Selection criteria for the sites to be rehabilitated

The designated sites for rehabilitation were chosen on the following criterion:

  • The reversibility of their damages
  • Their cost-effectiveness with due considerations given to the available funds for the project
  • The state of receptiveness of the local communities, in each site, and their firm commitment to protect the repaired sites for reasonable period so that they could regain their earlier productive potential of improved pasture regeneration capacity.

 5.3.1. Assessment of Expected Results

Expected results:                    Livelihoods strengthened through broad-based management and conservation of key target grazing areas and poverty alleviated through activities that support beneficiaries to exploit available natural resource potentials.

Indicator 1:                             Cash-for-Work schemes used sensibly to rehabilitate key grazing areas and implement site-based erosion control structures

Indicator 2:                             Improved rangeland recovery through re-seeding sites, as pilot activities

Indicator 3:                             Local pastoral institutions become transformed into environmentally conscious entity that has the ability and skills to protect natural resource on which their livelihood is driven or dependent.

Table 3: Proposed sites for rehabilitation activities:

Nugaal Garowe Salaxley Salaxley Rock dam
Garowe Darasalaam Darasalaam Water diversion
Sanaag Badhan Rad Rad valley Rock dam
Dhahar Dhahar Geedcilmi Water diversion

5.3.2. Site-Based Contour Bund Construction for Restoration and Conservation

The project will plan, organize and implement restoration and conservation of key grazing sites to be carried out at 4 severely eroded depressions located in the target regions. The principles behind the techniques demonstrated in this activity combine cost-effective physical constructions and agro-forestry measures to ensure maximum impact in reducing the velocity and flow of water. The key success factor of the intended approach is the use of materials and resources that are locally available to stabilize targets severely eroded by gullies. Moreover, the approach intends to validate the importance of community participation in this process in order to ensure both the sustainability of such initiatives as well as the wider adoption of its teachings by surrounding communities.

This activity will make use of RELMA’s proven dry land methodologies of soil & water conservation with a certain level of technical support from the Desert Margins Program (DMP). The implemented activities, however, will be guided by the needs of the target populations as well as the physical condition of target sites. Site-based sand contour bunds will be the major theme of barrier and, where available, stone bunds will be placed in half moon-shaped strips that are intended to conserve soil and water in strategic parts of the vastly degraded grassland. These methods are also intended to increase the infiltration of water so that regeneration capacity of target sites is improved.

5.3.3 Assumptions:

ü  Favorable climatic conditions

The immediate impact of the 2012 Dyer rains helped the regeneration of adequate pasture in most grazing lands of the project area.  These resources are expected to support survived animals until the next rainy season and beyond. Although recently subject to increasing cycles of droughts, the drastic decline of livestock population is contributing to the resilience of the rangeland. Considering the variable nature of the local climatic conditions, assumption is that no major ecological stress will happen during the project lifecycle.

ü  Peace and political stability in Puntland prevails during project life cycle

Puntland has been making important strides in the past decade to affect a more stable and peaceful context for human and national development. As such, with the exception of on-and-off disputes that are usually settled through clan-oriented conflict-resolution mechanisms, security in general is fairly good.

ü  Willingness of beneficiaries to adopt strategies and contribute towards project approaches

The various visited communities in the project area showed great interest in the approaches and strategies of the project as well as much anticipation in the commencement of project activities. They expect the project will address their priorities and that the outcomes will lead to an improved and sustainable livelihood prospects for them. This acknowledgment is encouraging that the project will enjoy a sustained sense of willingness and cooperation on the part of the local communities.

5.3.4. Monitoring and Evaluation

Monitoring the level of progress in the project should be a continuous process that seeks the involvement of all stakeholders. At periodic intervals, field visits involving KAALO and its partners should be organized while the project must have community-based mechanisms for each of the activities, which facilitate the collection of important data and information. Based on both process and impact indicators the benefit of the project outputs will be studied.

The process indicators will measure the outcomes of the following activities:

  • The facilitation of collaborative system of distribution between project-trained CAHWs and major suppliers of vet drugs and vet associations,
  • The progress and level of transformation reached by the local institutions in their respective activities.
  • The facilitation of extension services among target pastoral communities to increase awareness and secure participation and contribution towards improved fodder and NR generally.
  • The enhancement of livelihood opportunities through the improvement of understanding of current production systems, trends and dynamics of the pastoral economy.


5.3.5. Impact Indicators Are As Described In The Following Indicator Procedures.

Table 3: Result 1 Indicators

Improved livestock productivity through established community-based animal health services
Strategic Objective/result (i) 40 CAHWs selected, trained and established in target villages

(ii) Old CAHWs refresher trainings providedA. Purpose Related Improved economic production prospects of beneficiaries through improved proximity of animal health service provisions as well as herder extension services that is expected to significantly improve the general awareness of health practices among pastoral populations living in remote and marginal areas.B. DescriptionPrecise definitionIn the absence of access to adequate veterinary services, this component will strengthen the livelihoods of beneficiaries through the development of an effective and sustainable community-based animal health services.Unit of measurePercentageDisaggregated byDistrictManagement utilityA process of meetings and consultation involving village leaders, district authorities and project staff followed by training, capacity building and project activity involvement/partnershipC. Plan for data collectionData collection methodCAHW registers/record books, Access database, PRA toolsTiming/frequency of data collectionCAHWs: daily-basis / Community: needs-basis / Project: monthly-basisResponsible individualProject and partner staff, consultants, CAHWs, partner Vet Associations, PAs, line ministries and communityData storageM&E database (Access), report folder, disseminated copies to concerned parties.D. Plan for data analysis, reporting and reviewData AnalysisComparison targets to actual performance. Qualitative information during the monthly meetings and training sessions, narrating organizational capacity development efforts undertaken and record notable outcomes.Reporting scheduleField visit report, Monthly reports, biannual, annualE. Data quality issuesKnown data quality limitations and significance if anyLack of CAHW initiatives to register relevant data, service and sale records.

Limited community follow-upAppropriate actionImportant emphasis of this in the selection criteria.

Table 4: Result 2 Indicators

 Livelihoods strengthened through broad-based management and conservation of natural rangeland resources and poverty alleviated through activities that support beneficiaries to exploit available natural resource potentials
Strategic Objective/result To rehabilitate/stabilise 4 grazing depressions; using contour stone bunds and site specific techniques. Through combination of heavy mechanised vehicles and-for-work schemes.
A. Purpose Related
Increase natural fodder availability through communal grassland rehabilitation schemes and conservation of natural rangeland resources that support beneficiaries to exploit available natural resource potentials
B. Description
Precise definition Enhanced regeneration capacity of target areas and increased protection from permanent damage. Increased support for livestock productivity during dry seasons with increased availability of fodder.

Explored options to change modes of production through project inputs such as water and fodder.Unit of measureSite observation before and after restorationDisaggregated byDistrictManagement utilityEnvironmental awareness initiatives facilitated in target communities and multi-disciplinary training implemented on NRM for PAsC. Plan for data collectionData collection methodPRA tools, Access database, physical site observation/documentation (sequential digital photography)Timing/frequency of data collectionCommunity level: weekly basis / KAALO level: monthly basisResponsible individualProject staff, partners, developed VDC/PAs and hired consultantsData storageM&E database (Access), report folder, disseminated copies of reports to concerned parties.D. Plan for data analysis, reporting and reviewData AnalysisComparison targets to actual performance. Qualitative information during the monthly meetings and training sessions, narrating organizational capacity development efforts undertaken and record notable outcomes.Reporting scheduleField visit report, Monthly reports, annual, and finalE. Data quality issuesKnown data quality limitations and significance if any

5.3.6. Risks and Constraints

ü  Possibility of trainee dropout

ü  CAHWs sell drugs at higher prices than agreed

ü  VDC and partner association not effectively monitoring CAHWs performances

ü  Local community not fully understanding idea of revolving fund and purchase of drugs on credit

ü  Poor record keeping by the CAHWs



The trained and established CAHWs should be organized into horizontal networks as regards to information collection and dissemination in order to improve the credibility of the information they provide, which can in the context of such remote areas, be subject to personal interpretation.

This networking would also encourage sharing of knowledge and ideas between the different CAHWs. Moreover, this networking would improve the facilitation of both linkages between the CAHWs and veterinary associations as well as the facilitation of entry points for the respective village based institutions.

CAHWs move with pastoral movement so they always at centre of livestock density to give quick responses

To set up the rule and regulations for range land management related to enhance the feed resource of livestock and also to eliminate the scarcity of the natural resource by means of environmental conservation methods

To prepare the rules that support the range land management in the rural areas where the livestock population is high and also trains the pastoral community to reduce the cutting of natural plants



Names of Committees Met at Different Villages

1 Nuur Cabdi Ali chairman Mudug Galdogob Bursaalax
2 Saciid Abdi Nuur head of local government Mudug Galdogob Bursaalax
3 Bashiir Mohamed Guleed Vet. Mudug Galdogob Bursaalax
4 Cabdi jama kuule clan chief Mudug Galdogob Bursaalax
5 Jama Xabdule Cabdiraxman clan chief Mudug Galdogob Bursaalax
6 Mohamed Cabdi Elder Mudug Galdogob Bursaalax
7 Xaali Cabdi Cadaysay Mudug Galdogob Bursaalax
8 Mariam Khalief Cabdi Mudug Galdogob Bursaalax
9 Moxamed Xuseen Bare Mudug Galdogob Bursaalax
10 Axmed Mohamed khalaf Mudug Galkacyo Beyra
11 Sheekh Cali Axmed Mudug Galkayo Beyra
12 Cabdisamad farax Moxamud Mudug Galkayo Beyra
13 Cabdirizaq Cali yare Mudug Galkayo Beyra
14 Saciid Cabduqafar Cabdiraxman Mudug Galkacyo Beyra
15 Saciid Cusman Nuur Mudug Galkacyo Beyra
16 Cabdunajiib khalief jama Mudug Galkacyo Bayra
17 Cabdulahi Suleeman Cali Mudug Galkacyo Bayra
18 Duraan Axmed Xasan Mudug Galkacyo Beyra
19 Ali Xiis Cabdi Chairman Mudug Galkayo Cagaaran
20 Adan Xassan Moxamed Mudug Galkayo Cagaaran
21 Hure Nuur Cisman Mudug Galkayo Cagaaran
22 Adan Xassn Moxamed Mudug Galkayo Cagaaran
23 Cadbuxakiim Cabdi Mudug Galkayo Cagaaran
24 Gashaane Moxamoud Nur Mudug Galkayo Cagaaran
25 Moliid Axmed Mudug Galkayo Cagaaran
26 Saciid Ciire Cigaal Mudug Galkayo Cagaaran
27 Bishaar Jamac Moxamoud Mudug Galkayo Cagaaran
28 Bishaar Jamac Axmed Mudug Galkayo Cagaaran
29 Bashiir Maxamoud samanter the manage Mudug bacaadweyn Heema
30 Cali Moxamud Sheekh Ibrahim Mudug bacaadweyn Heema
31 Cabdi kaafi axmed Mudug bacaadweyn Heema
32 Faysal Adan Bare Mudug bacaadweyn Heema
33 Sheekh Axmed sheek moxamoud Mudug Xarfo Ceel Gerdi
34 Adan Xaashi Moxamed Mudug Xarfo Ceel Gerdi
35 Cadbiraxman Jamac Cali Mudug Xarfo Ceel Gerdi
36 Moxamed Xashi Omar Mudug Xarfo Xarfo
37 Nuur Cali Warsame Mudug Xarfo Xarfo
38 Sheekh Axmed Moxamed Cumar Mudug Xarfo Xarfo
39 Shaafi Sacdi Axmed Mudug Xarfo Xarfo
40 Xirsi Adan Cali Nugaal Garowe Awrculus
41 Moxamoud Cabdi Moxamed Nugaal Garowe Awrculus
42 Cabdinaasir abdiraxman Cali Nugaal Garowe Awrculus
43 Ciiro Shire Bare Nugaal Garowe Awrculus
44 Cadburashiid Bare Ciise Nugaal Garowe Awrculus
45 Shiine Aden Cali Nugaal Garowe Awrculus
46 Yurub Cilmi Mataan Nugaal Garowe Awrculus
47 Moxamoud Moxamed Yusuf Nugaal Garowe Reebanti
48 Moxamoud Yusuf Farax Nugaal Garowe Reebanti
49 Cabdi Yasiin Farax Nugaal Garowe Reebanti
50 Jamac ismail farax Nugaal Garowe Reebanti
51 Cumar Cawil Jamac Nugaal Garowe Reebanti
52 Ciir Caydiid Soodhaqsade Nugaal Garowe Reebanti
53 Cisman Cali Cisman Nugaal Garowe Reebanti
54 Cabdulqadir Saciid Cali Nugaal Garowe Reebanti
55 Cadbikhayr Yusuf Axmed Nugaal Burtinle Mayle
56 Xuseen Bashiir Xaashi Nugaal Burtinle Mayle
57 Moxamed Xuseen Samantar Nugaal Burtinle Mayle
58 Cabdinuur Axmed Warsame Nugaal Burtinle Mayle
59 Cabdiraxman Axmed Farax Nugaal Burtinle Mayle
60 Vet. Dr. Bashiir Nuur Faarax Nugaal Garowe Laqlaajisle
61 Abdirizaaq Axmed Jaamac Nugaal Garowe Laqlaajisle
62 Cabdulqaadir Yusuf Cilmi Nugaal Garowe Laqlaajisle
63 Moxamed Aden Ciise Nugaal Garowe Laqlaajisle
64 Faarax Aden Bulxan Nugaal Garowe Laqlaajisle
65 Xaji Moxamed Warsame Ciise Nugaal Jiriiban Wargaduud
66 Calli Cabdi Moxamed Nugaal Jiriiban Wargaduud
67 Cabdulahi Jaamac Cabdi Nugaal Jiriiban Wargaduud
68 Cali Ciise Cabdiraxman Nugaal Jiriiban Wargaduud
69 Cali Jamac Faarax chairman Nugaal Jiriiban Wargaduud
70 Cabdulahi Jamac Maxamed Nugaal Jiriiban Wargaduud
71 Cisman Salaad Cali Nugaal Garowe Yoonbeys
72 Yusuf Faarax Nuur Nugaal Garowe Yoonbeys
73 Liiban Cabdi Cali Nugaal Garowe Yoonbeys
74 Cabdulqadir Maxamed Faarax Sanaag Dhahar Xingalool
75 Axmed Farax Xasan Sanaag Dhahar Xingalool
76 Cabdisalaad Warsame Sanaag Dhahar Xingalool
77 Bashiir Maxamed Axmed Sanaag Dhahar Xingalool
78 Maxamed Axmed Cali Salaad Sanaag Badhan Ceel buh
79 Siciid Maxamed Salaad Sanaag Badhan Ceel buh
80 Jibriil dhaye Jibriil Sanaag Badhan Ceel buh
81 Xaawo Axmed Shuqul Sanaag Badhan Ceel buh
82 Cumar Ciise Warsame Sanaag Badhan Ceel buh
83 Faarax Maxamuud Yuusuf Sanaag Badhan Badhan
84 Maxamuud ismail Governor Badhan Sanaag Badhan Badhan
85 Jaamac daahir qodax Sanaag Badhan Badhan
86 Maxamed axmed geele Sanaag Dhahar dhahar
87 Khaliif Siciid maxamed Sanaag Dhahar dhahar
88 Cumar Aadan xasan Sanaag Dhahar dhahar
89 Saleeban Siciid Cabdi Sanaag Dhahar dhahar
90 Axmed Cabdi xasan Sanaag Dhahar dhahar
91 Xaawo daahir qodax Sanaag Dhahar dhahar
92 Ruqiyo Siciid maxamed Sanaag Dhahar dhahar
93 Waris Cabdi geesood Sanaag Dhahar dhahar
94 Cabdi jaamac Xirsi Sanaag Dhahar dhahar
95 Cabdiqadir cabdulaahi maxamed Sanaag Dhahar dhahar
96 Xasan xaaji Xirsi Sanaag Badhan Rad
97 Khaliif  Aadan Faarax Sanaag Badhan Rad
98 Maxamed ciise axmed Sanaag Badhan Rad
99 Cali Siciid Xirsi Sanaag Badhan Rad
10 Siciid axmed maxamed Sanaag Badhan Rad
101 Xaamid Liibaan carab Sanaag Badhan Rad
102 Cali xasan cali Sanaag Badhan Rad
103 Cali saalax ciise Sanaag Badhan Rad
104 Siciid ciise cali Sanaag Badhan Rad
105 Muuse ciise maxamed Sanaag Badhan Rad
106 Cawad  cali Jamac Sanaag Badhan Mindigale
107 Cali axmed maxamed Sanaag Badhan Mindigale
108 Maxamed cabdulaahi cali Sanaag Badhan Mindigale
109 Siciid ducaale  ismaciil Sanaag Badhan Mindigale
110 Aamino cali jaamac Sanaag Badhan Mindigale
111 Asilii maxamed Faarax Sanaag Badhan Mindigale




1.0   Background to Baseline Survey


The livestock value chain in Puntland is exceptionally significant for the livelihoods of the entire population. Despite its potential, the predominantly pastoral livestock sector is affected by serious constraints including animal health, declining feed resources resulting from extensive degradation of the rangelands, low productivity worsened by recurrent severe droughts, poor marketability of products, and poor organization of actors along the livestock value chain. Many of these constraints derive from severe capacity limitations   as well as poor policy and institutional frameworks that govern the livestock value chain. Following a Partnership assessment and formulation mission to Puntland in June 2012, animal health and natural resource management were identified as priority areas by the Ministry for intervention under the Puntland component of the program.

The project target area represents significant portion of Bari, eastern Sanag, Nugaal and northern Mudug

2.0 Introduction

The USAID-funded Partnership for Economic Growth (Partnership) program is being implemented by Development Alternatives, Inc. (DAI) and CNFA. The purpose of the Partnership program is to help local authorities and private sector groups improve the enabling environment for investment, generate more productive employment and improve other livelihood activities. Using a flexible approach that relies on detailed analysis before launching each sub-activity, the Partnership program has two focus areas: overall private sector development and strengthening specific productive value chains, including livestock and agriculture.

As part of the project’s inception process, KAALO – project implementing partner is going to hire lead consultant and supported with two assistants to undertake a baseline survey ascertaining the relevance of the proposed components/activities against the felt-needs of communities in the target region of Puntland. In addition, the survey intends to identify constraints and opportunities on the ground based on analyses of the context of target communities’ existing problems against the objectives and strategies of the project.

Based on the survey’s key findings, a project implementation plan will be developed in conjunction with a monitoring and evaluation plan with inputs from target communities.

1.0          Survey Methodology

This baseline survey takes place prior to beginning of program implementation, hence will serve as basis or benchmark for development of detailed monitoring and evaluation work plan that assess changes made by the project inputs. The study shall be done through field visits to discuss with communities and individual livestock owners and, besides establishing benchmark, data collected from the field is to be checked against and integrated with the project’s existing literature. The survey will, therefore, consider the following tasks:


  • The team shall review project document and other secondary information available from local institutions and international actors;
  • Information collection in the field using one-to one interview, focus group discussion and mixture of conventional and participatory research methods.
  • Production of a checklist sheet outlining the specific data to be collected
  • Choose at least 4-5 villages from each district within the above noted regions using stratified random sampling or other objective techniques
  • Assembling data and presenting it in a meeting with PC and other project staff officer
  • Analysis and report writing


4.0   Project Components

a)    Selection and training of Community Based Animal Health Workers – Result 1


ü  Selection of CAHWs from the program coverage areas – S. Sanag, Bari,  Nugaal and N. Mudug

ü   Catalog 40 new CAHWs from the visited districts’ affiliated villages using selection criteria for the trainees in close collaboration with the village elders and committees

ü   Make inventory of 40 previous trained CAHWs from the visited districts/villages aimed for giving refresher training

ü   Lesson learned from the previous CAHWs training, program rational and  sustainability

The community elders are responsible for the facilitation of initial selection process, taking into consideration the standard selection criterion that will determine eligibility for each participant for the training.   As earlier experience shows, major principles in this criterion should include literacy on Somali language and numeracy skills, trustworthiness, willingness, livestock ownership, skills base on animal health and gender consideration.  And finally to assure this investment will not be misplaced, every selected participant should bring grantor who will make assurance that CAHW in question will provide vet service for his community in the future.

b)    Animal Feed Support Through Improved Rangeland Management


ü  Select 4 key community grazing locations that undergo severe degradation process that after rehabilitation  could regain its earlier productive potential of improved pasture regeneration capacity

ü  In every selected grazing depression, identify active and functioning local community based institutional and structures like Community Development Committees (CDCs) or Pastoral Associations (PA). These will be useful for mobilizing communities in order to engage them in the activities aimed at improving communal grazing areas;

ü  For each selected village detect CDCs, PA and other community structures on natural resources management practices, principally on soil and water conservation techniques aimed at improving the availability of animal feed resources in communal pasturelands.

ü  Pinpoint Demonstration plots with the local community in addition to definition of number of field days for each site.

ü  Through local community participation, develop a model for conservation, and development of communal rangelands.

ü  explore capacity-building needs for the selected communities

ü  establish monitoring and evaluation plan to measure success


 4.1 Criterion for the section of grazing pastureland to be rehabilitated;

ü  reversibility of the visible damage of the grazing depression has undergone over years

ü  the outlook after rehabilitation, the depression will increase its natural fodder regeneration and will afterwards host fourfold of its earlier carrying capacity

ü  the state of receptiveness and possible collaboration showed by beneficiaries

ü  the likelihood in which local community will protect grazing pastureland after the rehabilitation is completed

ü  pastoral community aware enough about project inputs and its long term benefit of improved pasture/fodder availability

4.2   type and level of environment degradation, land and land based resources ( grazing and grazing land condition) and trends


4.3  The baseline survey has to provide detailed work plan of implementation for the project various components:


4.4  Impact assessment of the envisaged intervention for the project goals in qualitative data, i.e. number households that will be targeted in every district, improved rangeland, number of households will benefit erosion control cash for work programmes and overall food security improvements.


5.0  Risks and assumptions

6.0  One of the crucial objectives of the baseline survey is to give detailed activities    for monitoring and evaluation of the project indicators

–  Provide unite of measurement for every indicator

–  Management utility

–  Data storage and analysis

–  reporting schedule


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